Month: August 2016

History of Robotic Surgery

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Origins of Robotic Surgery

The first documented use of a robot-assisted surgical procedure occurred in 1985 when the PUMA 560 robotic surgical arm was used in a delicate neurosurgical biopsy, a non-laparoscopic surgery. The robotic system allowed for a successful robotic surgery and the potential for greater precision when used in minimally invasive surgeries, such as laparoscopies which typically utilize flexible fiber optic cameras. The 1985 robotic surgery lead to the first laparoscopic procedure involving a robotic system, a cholecystecotomy, in 1987. The following year the same PUMA system was used to perform a robotic surgery transurethral resection. In 1990 the AESOP system produced by Computer Motion became the first system approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for its endoscopic surgical procedure.

In 2000, the da Vinci Surgery System broke new ground by becoming the first robotic surgery system approved by the FDA for general laparoscopic surgery. This was the first time the FDA approved an all-encompassing system of surgical instruments and camera/scopic utensils. Its predecessors relied upon the use of endoscopes and numerous surgical assistants to perform surgery. The da Vinci robotic surgery system’s three dimensional magnification screen allows the surgeon to view the operative area with the clarity of high resolution. The one centimeter diameter surgical arms represent a significant advancement in robotic surgery from the early, large-armed systems such as the PUMA 560. With such miniaturized operating arms, the da Vinci robotic surgery system removes the need to leverage the sides of the incision walls. This advancement allows for less contact between exposed interior tissue and the surgical device, greatly reducing the risk of infection. The “Endo-wrist” features of the operating arms precisely replicate the skilled movements of the surgeon at the controls, improving accuracy in small operating spaces.

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Benefits to the Patient of Computer Assisted Surgery

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COMPUTER ASSISTED SURGERY
Computer assisted surgery (CAS) is nothing short of a surgical breakthrough. By utilizing an infrared navigation camera, wireless Smart Instruments, and intuitive software, this technology improves a surgeon’s ability to visualize a patient’s anatomy, track instruments, and deliver greater surgical precision.
BENEFITS FOR THE PATIENT
More accurate
Faster
Quicker Healing Time
Less Pain
Less Blood Loss

Benefits to the Patient of Computer Assisted Surgery

robot-hand-human-580x435

COMPUTER ASSISTED SURGERY
Computer assisted surgery (CAS) is nothing short of a surgical breakthrough. By utilizing an infrared navigation camera, wireless Smart Instruments, and intuitive software, this technology improves a surgeon’s ability to visualize a patient’s anatomy, track instruments, and deliver greater surgical precision.
BENEFITS FOR THE PATIENT
More accurate
Faster
Quicker Healing Time
Less Pain
Less Blood Loss

Why Robotic Surgery

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Major advances aided by surgical robots have been remote surgery, minimally invasive surgery and unmanned surgery. Due to robotic use, the surgery is done with precision, miniaturization, smaller incisions; decreased blood loss, less pain, and quicker healing time. Articulation beyond normal manipulation and three-dimensional magnification helps resulting in improved ergonomics. Due to these techniques there is a reduced duration of hospital stays, blood loss, transfusions, and use of pain medication. The existing open surgery technique has many flaws like limited access to surgical area, long recovery time, long hours of operation, blood loss, surgical scars and marks.

.Additional surgical training is needed to operate the system. Numerous feasibility studies have been done to determine whether the purchase of such systems are worthwhile. As it stands, opinions differ dramatically. Surgeons report that, although the manufacturers of such systems provide training on this new technology, the learning phase is intensive and surgeons must operate on twelve to eighteen patients before they adapt. During the training phase, minimally invasive operations can take up to twice as long as traditional surgery, leading to operating room tie ups and surgical staffs keeping patients under anesthesia for longer periods. Patient surveys indicate they chose the procedure based on expectations of decreased morbidity, improved outcomes, reduced blood loss and less pain.

Compared with other minimally invasive surgery approaches, robot-assisted surgery gives the surgeon better control over the surgical instruments and a better view of the surgical site. In addition, surgeons no longer have to stand throughout the surgery and do not tire as quickly. Naturally occurring hand tremors are filtered out by the robot’s computer software. Finally, the surgical robot can continuously be used by rotating surgery teams.

Heartburn Help

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When you chew gum, your mouth makes more spit. That acts as a buffer to acid. You also swallow more when you chew gum, and that pushes acid down.

Smoking can make things worse. You’re likely to make less spit and more stomach acid.

If your heartburn is worse when you lie down, try raising the head of your bed so your head and chest are higher than your feet. But don’t do it with pillows. That can put your head at an angle that can put more pressure on your stomach, making things worse. Instead, try putting 6-inch blocks under the bed posts at the head of the bed.

Sleeping on your left side also can help. Studies show lying on your right side can make heartburn worse. The left position seems to put less pressure on the muscle connecting your stomach and esophagus.