A hernia is a bulge caused by tissue pushing through the wall of muscle that’s holding it in. Most hernias are abdominal hernias. This means they happen in the belly and groin areas.
You may have a hernia if you can feel a soft lump in your belly or groin or in a scar where you had surgery in the past. The lump may go away when you press on it or lie down. It may be painful, especially when you cough, bend over, or lift something heavy.
Types of hernias include:
In an inguinal hernia, the intestine or the bladder protrudes through the abdominal wall or into the inguinal canal in the groin. About 96% of all groin hernias are inguinal, and most occur in men because of a natural weakness in this area.
During surgery to repair the hernia, the bulging tissue is pushed back in. Your abdominal wall is strengthened and supported with sutures (stitches), and sometimes mesh. This repair can be done with open or laparoscopic surgery. You and your surgeon can discuss which type of surgery is right for you.
Choledocholithiasis is the presence of stones in bile ducts; the stones can form in the gallbladder or in the ducts themselves. These stones cause biliary colic, biliary obstruction, gallstone pancreatitis, or cholangitis (bile duct infection and inflammation).
- light-colored stools.
- dark urine.
- yellowish skin or eyes, which indicates jaundice.
- pain in the upper right side of the abdomen.
- weight loss.
The primary objective of medical or surgical treatment is to alleviate the blockage. Some of the treatment options include a cholecystectomy and an ERCP.
A cholecystectomy is the removal of the gallbladder if there are gallstones. An ERCP may be sufficient to remove small stones from the common bile duct or to place a stent inside the duct to restore bile flow.
A sports hernia is a strain or tear of any soft tissue (muscle, tendon, ligament) in the lower abdomen or groin area. Because different tissues may be affected and a traditional hernia may not exist, the medical community prefers the term “athletic pubalgia” to refer to this type of injury.
Symptoms of sports hernia
Symptoms of sports hernia may include one or more of the following:
- Sudden and severe groin pain at the time of the injury
- Groin pain that goes away with rest, but returns during sports activity
- Groin pain that is more commonly felt on one side of the groin area only (unilateral), rather than on both sides
- Pain that only appears during twisting movements
- Pain associated with other movements that involve the deep abdominal muscles, such as half sit-ups (stomach crunches) or coughing
- Tenderness or bruising in the upper thigh and/or lower abdomen
- Groin pain that gradually increases from intermittent to constant, and/or pain that develops to the point playing sports becomes impossible
Even if none of the above symptoms are present, the often-vague nature of the injury means some athletes may still have sports hernia if the only symptom is chronic groin pain or lower athletic performance.
Treatment protocols for sports hernia remain controversial. Some practitioners advise nonsurgical treatments such as rest, anti-inflammatory medications, and physical therapy. Others believe it can only be corrected with surgery.
Gallstones occur in up to 20% of American women by the age of 60. Women between the ages of 20 and 60 years are three times more likely to develop gallstones than men.
Risk Factors for Development of Gallstones
- Multiple pregnancies
- Family history of gallstones
- Hispanic or American Indian heritage
- Rapid loss of weight