Author: vegasrobotdoc

GALLBLADDER REMOVAL

images3GALLBLADDER REMOVAL
The gallbladder is a 4-inch-long, pear-shaped organ found under the liver in the upper right region of the abdomen. It stores bile, a compound produced by the liver to digest fat, and helps the body absorb fat-soluble vitamins and nutrients.

In a healthy gallbladder, this process happens painlessly. However, when blockage occurs in the gallbladder, or it stops functioning correctly, considerable pain and discomfort can occur.

Cholecystectomy is surgery to remove the gallbladder. A gallbladder may need to be removed if the organ is prone to troublesome gallstones, if it is infected, or becomes cancerous.

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APPENDICITIS

downloadMore than 200,000 US cases per year
Requires a medical diagnosis
Lab tests or imaging often required
Treatable by a medical professional
Short-term: resolves within days to weeks

The appendix is a pouch on the colon that has no known purpose.
Appendicitis begins with pain near the belly button and then moves to the right side. This is often accompanied by nausea, vomiting, poor appetite, fever, and chills.
Appendicitis is usually treated with surgery and antibiotics. If untreated, the appendix can rupture and cause an abscess or systemic infection (sepsis).

HEMORRHOIDS

 

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HEMORRHOIDS
Hemorrhoids are not life-threatening, but they can make life miserable for some people.

Internal and External Hemorrhoids

Internal hemorrhoids are far enough inside the rectum that you can’t usually see or feel them. They don’t generally hurt because you have few pain-sensing nerves there. Bleeding may be the only sign of them.

External hemorrhoids are under the skin around the anus, where there are many more pain-sensing nerves, so they tend to hurt as well as bleed.

While most hemorrhoids occur on the outside of the anus and are fairly easy to treat, internal hemorrhoids can be more challenging.

GI SURGEONS can treat internal hemorrhoids.

All About Your Microbiome

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What Is It?

Did you know your body is home to trillions of tiny organisms called microbes? No worries — those “bugs” are supposed to be there! Together, they make up your microbiome. It’s all over your body but mainly in your gut. Your microbiome is closely tied to your health in ways you might not expect. And researchers are studying how it might improve health from head to toe.

Your gut and your brain talk back and forth to each other, connecting through millions of nerve cells. Scientists have linked certain changes in the gut microbiome to stress, depression, and anxiety.

Inflammatory bowel disease is a group of conditions that cause your intestines to become inflamed. They include Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis. The way your gut microbes affect the cells that line your intestines may play a role in these diseases. Certain types of bacteria may irritate the intestines. Some people with Crohn’s disease have a gene glitch that lets gut bacteria enter the intestine’s walls. This can trigger inflammation.

Scientists are looking for ways to improve the microbiome to help people avoid certain diseases or respond to treatments better. But some medicines can harm it.  One round of antibiotics can change your microbiome for up to a year. (Antibiotics don’t just kill the bacteria that make you sick. They also kill your helpful gut bacteria.) And a study of more than 1,000 drugs showed that 1 in 4 affected bacteria growth. These included blood pressure, cancer, and diabetes medications.

Simple daily habits make a difference. What you eat can change the microbes that live in your body. High-fiber foods (such as veggies, whole grains, and fruit) feed the helpful bacteria in your colon. They also discourage the growth of some harmful ones. Probiotic foods, such as yogurt and pickled vegetables, also deliver helpful bacteria to your gut. Getting enough sleep, easing stress, and exercising may also improve your microbiome.

From WebMD

APPENDICITIS: SYMPTOMS AND TREATMENT

APPENDICITIS: SYMPTOMS AND TREATMENT

appendicitisComplaints of a pain in the side will almost always bring the suggestion, “Maybe it’s appendicitis!” It’s true that pain is one of the symptoms, but what is appendicitis, and how do you know if you really might be having an attack? If you are suffering from appendicitis, what is the treatment?

Let’s start by looking at what the organ known as the appendix does. The human appendix is a finger-shaped pouch that projects from the colon on the lower right side of the abdomen. Previously thought to have no redeeming functions, new research shows that the appendix seems to play a part in immune functions and digestion, and it is especially important during fetal development through the third decade of life.

When this small organ becomes inflamed and filled with pus, it is called appendicitis. This is thought to be caused by infection that finds its way into the organ or perhaps from a blockage containing bacteria that causes infection.

Regardless of the cause, appendicitis usually presents itself as pain near the navel, moving to the lower right side and becoming severe. The pain is often made worse by coughing or other body-jarring movements. Sometimes accompanied by nausea and vomiting, fever, loss of appetite, constipation or diarrhea, and abdominal bloating, appendicitis can be quite painful and serious.  If not treated promptly, the appendix can even rupture, leading to serious issues.

Typically, surgery to remove the appendix (appendectomy) along with antibiotics for infection is the preferred treatment for appendicitis. Appendectomy can be performed as open surgery requiring a relatively large incision or laparoscopically with a few very small abdominal incisions. In general, laparoscopic surgery takes less recovery time with less pain and scarring, but each case is unique.

Schedule an appointment with Dr. Johnson to discuss surgical options.

Read more about appendicitis at: http://www.appendicitissymptoms.org/diagnosis-and-treatment

Common Surgical Procedures

common surgical procedures

Common Surgical Procedures
According to the American Medical Association and the American College of Surgeons, some of the most common surgical operations performed in the United States include the following (in alphabetical order):

Appendectomy is the surgical removal of the appendix, a small tube that branches off the large intestine, to treat acute appendicitis. Appendicitis is the acute inflammation of this tube due to infection.

Cholecystectomy is surgery to remove the gallbladder (a pear-shaped sac near the right lobe of the liver that holds bile). A gallbladder may need to be removed if the organ is prone to troublesome gallstones, if it is infected, or becomes cancerous.

What Are the Different Methods of Surgery?

With technical advances today, surgery does not necessarily mean large incisions, as in the past. Depending on the type of surgery, there are several surgery methods that may be performed:

  • Open surgery – an “open” surgery means the cutting of skin and tissues so that the surgeon has a full view of the structures or organs involved. Examples of open surgery are the removal of the organs, such as the gallbladder or kidneys.
  • Minimally invasive surgery – minimally invasive surgery is any technique involved in surgery that does not require a large incision. This relatively new approach allows the patient to recuperate faster with less pain. Not all conditions are suitable for minimally invasive surgery.

GERD? It Could Be A Hiatal Hernia

Hiatal-Hernia-It-can-be-diagnosed-if-the-following-symptoms-are-found-heartburn-chestA hiatal hernia occurs when the upper part of your stomach bulges through the large muscle separating your abdomen and chest (diaphragm). Your diaphragm has a small opening (hiatus) through which your food tube (esophagus) passes before connecting to your stomach.

Risk Factors
Several risk factors make a weakening of the hiatus, an opening in the diaphragm through which the food pipe passes, more likely. For example, hiatal hernias are more common among people over 50 years of age and those who have obesity.

Other risk factors include an upward force that occurs due to weightlifting, straining to empty the bowel, or persistent coughing or vomiting. These actions temporarily increase the pressure inside the abdominal cavity. Injury to the diaphragm, such as trauma from a fall or traffic accident, can also lead to a hiatal hernia.

Symptoms
Symptoms are usually the result of acid moving up from the stomach. This acid can cause heartburn, which is a burning sensation around the lower chest area.

Heartburn tends to get worse in response to certain foods and beverages, and it often occurs when a person is lying down or bending over, especially soon after eating. It can lead to bloating, belching, and a bad taste in the back of the throat.

If heartburn becomes a regular problem, this might signify that a person has acid reflux. Acid reflux is a condition in which heartburn occurs at least twice a week. If acid reflux happens too regularly for a prolonged period, it might progress to gastroesophageal reflux disease.

Treatments
Lifesytle changes including weight loss, timing and size of meals, avoidance of acid producing foods can help minimize acid refluz
Over the counter antacida and prescription medication can also help.

Surgery
People who develop severe and long-term reflux problems may need to consider having an operation if lifestyle changes and drug treatments are not effective. Surgery also becomes necessary if a hernia is large enough to disrupt the blood supply.

The operations for hiatal hernias are laparoscopic. Surgeons perform these procedures through small “keyhole” cuts, so they are minimally invasive.

Surgery for Colon Cancer

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Surgery is often the main treatment for earlier-stage colon cancers. The type of surgery used depends on the stage (extent) of the cancer, where it is, and the goal of the surgery.

Any type of colon surgery needs to be done on a clean and empty colon. You will be put on a special diet before surgery and may need to use laxative drinks and enemas to get all of the stool out of your colon. This bowel prep is a lot like the one used before a colonoscopy.

Polypectomy and local excision

Some early colon cancers (stage 0 and some early stage I tumors) and most polyps can be removed during a colonoscopy. This is a procedure that uses a long flexible tube with a small video camera on the end that’s put into the person’s rectum and threaded into the colon. These surgeries can be done during a colonoscopy:

  • For a polypectomy, the cancer is removed as part of the polyp, which is cut at its stalk (the part that looks like the stem of a mushroom). This is usually done by passing a wire loop through the colonoscope to cut the polyp off the wall of the colon with an electric current.
  • local excision is a slightly more involved procedure. Tools are used through the colonoscope to remove small cancers on the inside lining of the colon along with a small amount of surrounding healthy tissue on the wall of colon.

When cancer or polyps are taken out this way, the doctor doesn’t have to cut into the abdomen (belly).

Colectomy

A colectomy is surgery to remove all or part of the colon. Nearby lymph nodes are also removed.

  • If only part of the colon is removed, it’s called a hemicolectomy, partial colectomy, or segmental resection. The surgeon takes out the part of the colon with the cancer and a small segment of normal colon on either side. Usually, about one-fourth to one-third of the colon is removed, depending on the size and location of the cancer. The remaining sections of colon are then reattached. At least 12 nearby lymph nodes are also removed so they can be checked for cancer.
  • If all of the colon is removed, it’s called a total colectomy. Total colectomy isn’t often needed to treat colon cancer. It’s mostly used only if there’s another problem in the part of the colon without cancer, such as hundreds of polyps (in someone with familial adenomatous polyposis) or, sometimes, inflammatory bowel disease.

How it’s done

A colectomy can be done in 2 ways:

  • Open colectomy: The surgery is done through a single long incision (cut) in the abdomen (belly).
  • Laparoscopic-assisted colectomy: The surgery is done through many smaller incisions and special tools. A laparoscope is a long, thin lighted tube with a small camera and light on the end that lets the surgeon see inside the abdomen. It’s put into one of the small cuts, and long, thin instruments are put in through the others to remove part of the colon and lymph nodes.

Because the incisions are smaller in a laparoscopic-assisted colectomy than in an open colectomy, patients often recover faster and may be able to leave the hospital sooner than they would after an open colectomy. But this type of surgery requires special expertise, and it might not be the best approach for everyone. If you’re considering this type of surgery, be sure to look for a skilled surgeon who has done many of these operations.

Overall survival rates and the chance of the cancer returning are much the same between an open colectomy and a laparoscopic-assisted colectomy.

If the colon is blocked

When cancer blocks the colon, it usually happens slowly and the person can become very sick over time. In cases like this, a stent may be placed before surgery is done. A stent is a hollow metal or plastic tube that the doctor can put inside the colon and through the blockage using a colonoscope. This tube to keeps the colon open and relieves the blockage to help you prepare for surgery.

If a stent can’t be placed in a blocked colon or if the tumor has caused a hole in the colon, surgery may be needed right away. This usually is the same type of colectomy that’s done to remove the cancer, but instead of reconnecting the ends of the colon, the top end of the colon is attached to an opening (called a stoma) made in the skin of the abdomen. Stool then comes out this opening. This is called a colostomy and is usually only needed for a short time. Sometimes the end of the small intestine (the ileum) instead of the colon is connected to a stoma in the skin. This is called an ileostomyEither way, a bag sticks to the skin around the stoma to hold the waste.

Once the patient is healthier, another operation (known as a colostomy reversal or ileostomy reversal) can be done to put the ends of the colon back together or to attach the ileum to the colon. Rarely, if a tumor can’t be removed or a stent placed, the colostomy or ileostomy may need to be permanent.

Common Surgical Procedures

inside-edition-surgical-servicesCommon Surgical Procedures

According to the American Medical Association and the American College of Surgeons, some of the most common surgical operations performed in the United States include

  • Appendectomy is the surgical removal of the appendix, a small tube that branches off the large intestine, to treat acute appendicitis. Appendicitis is the acute inflammation of this tube due to infection.
  • Cholecystectomy is surgery to remove the gallbladder (a pear-shaped sac near the right lobe of the liver that holds bile). A gallbladder may need to be removed if the organ is prone to troublesome gallstones, if it is infected, or becomes cancerous.
  • Hemorrhoidectomy is the surgical removal of hemorrhoids, distended veins in the lower rectum or anus.
  • Partial colectomy is the removal of part of the large intestine (colon) which may be performed to treat cancer of the colon or long-term ulcerative colitis.

Yes, Dr Matt Johnson does them all!