Month: February 2019

Your Gallbladder

493ss_getty_rf_gallbladder_anatomy_illustrationYour gallbladder sits on the right side of your belly, below your liver. It’s a small organ, shaped like a pear, that holds a fluid called bile. This liquid, made in your liver, helps you digest fats and certain vitamins. When you eat, your body gets the signal to release it — through channels called ducts — into your small intestine.
The most common reason people have trouble with their gallbladder is gallstones. You get them when bile clumps together and forms solid masses. They can be as big as a golf ball, and you can have just one or several.

If a gallstone gets into a duct and keeps bile from flowing out, your gallbladder can get inflamed. That’s called cholecystitis, and it can lead to nausea, vomiting, and belly pain. Bacteria also can cause it. You can tell you’re having gallbladder trouble by where it hurts: the upper right part of your belly. It might get worse when you take deep breath, .and you may also feel an ache in your back or right shoulder blade.

If You Think You Have a Problem

Your doctor will examine you and might want to take a sample of your blood to look for signs your body is fighting an infection. You probably will have an imaging test, like an ultrasound. It uses sound waves to make detailed images of your gallbladder. Your doctor also might want an X-ray of your belly or other blood tests to see how well your liver is working. Your doctor may recommend surgery, called cholecystectomy, to take out your gallbladder. You’ll be fine without it — the bile your liver makes will flow straight into your intestine.

 

From Web MD

 

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Hernia Basics

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A bulging of an organ or tissue through an abnormal opening.
Common
More than 200,000 US cases per year
Treatable by a medical professional
Usually self-diagnosable
Lab tests or imaging rarely required
Medium-term: resolves within months
Typically, a hernia involves the stomach or intestine.
Symptoms include a bulge, swelling, or pain. In some cases, there are no symptoms.
Treatment includes monitoring the condition. If needed, surgery can return tissue to its normal location and close the opening.
Ages affected
0-2
Common
3-5
Rare
6-13
Rare
14-18
Common
19-40
Common
41-60
Very common
60+
Very common
Genders affected
Males
Very common
Females
Common

 

Gastrointenstinal Surgery

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Upper gastrointestinal surgery, often referred to as upper GI surgery, refers to a practise of surgery that focuses on the upper parts of the gastrointestinal tract. There are many operations relevant to the upper gastrointestinal tract that are best done only by those who keep constant practise, owing to their complexity. Consequently, a general surgeon may specialise in ‘upper GI’ by attempting to maintain currency in those skills.

Upper GI surgeons would have an interest in, and may exclusively perform, the following operations:

Lower gastrointestinal surgery includes colorectal surgery as well as surgery of the small intestine.

Academically, it refers to a sub-specialisation of medical practise whereby a general surgeon focuses on the lower gastrointestinal tract.

In the U.S., a student wanting to specialize and practice in adult lower GI surgery would generally have to go through four years of undergraduate college pre-medical education and get a bachelor’s degree, then finish the four years of medical school, then finish a typically five-year-long residency in general surgery, and then perform a subsequent one-year-long (minimum) residency in surgery of the small intestine or large intestine (the colon– specifically, the cecum, the vermiform appendix, the ascending colon, the transverse colon, the hepatic flexure and the splenic flexure, the descending colon, and the sigmoid colon; and also the rectum and the anus). A fellowship (in surgery of the small intestine or of the large bowel, or in pediatric/neonatal lower GI surgery, or in surgery of congenital abnormalities or rare disorders of the lower GI tract, or in emergency/trauma surgery or in cancer surgery of the area), would add on approximately one to three more years.[1]

lower GI surgeon might specialise in the following operations:

  • Colectomy
  • Low or ultralow resections for rectal cancer, etc.

Worst Foods for Digestion

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FRIED FOODS:  They’re high in fat and can bring on diarrhea. Rich sauces, fatty cuts of meat, and buttery or creamy desserts can cause problems, too.

Choose roasted or baked foods and light sauces that feature vegetables instead of butter or cream.

CITRUS FRUITS: Because they’re high in fiber, they can give some folks an upset stomach. Go easy on oranges, grapefruit, and other citrus fruits if your belly doesn’t feel right.

ARTIFICIAL SWEETENER:  Chew too much sugar-free gum made with sorbitol and you might get cramps and diarrhea. Food made with this artificial sweetener can cause the same problems.

The FDA warns that you might get diarrhea if you eat 50 or more grams a day of sorbitol, though even much lower amounts reportedly cause trouble for some people.

TOO MUCH FIBER:  Foods high in this healthy carb, like whole grains and vegetables, are good for digestion. But if you start eating lots of them, your digestive system may have trouble adjusting. The result: gas and bloating. So step up the amount of fiber you eat gradually.

BEANS  They’re loaded with healthy protein and fiber, but they also have hard-to-digest sugars that cause gas and cramping. Your body doesn’t have enzymes that can break them down. Bacteria in your gut do the work instead, giving off gas in the process.

Try this tip to get rid of some of the troublesome sugars: Soak dried beans for at least 4 hours and pour off the water before cooking.

CABBAGE AND ITS COUSINS:  Cruciferous vegetables, like broccoli and cabbage, have the same sugars that make beans gassy. Their high fiber can also make them hard to digest. It will be easier on your stomach if you cook them instead of eating raw.

FRUCTOSE:  Foods sweetened with this — including sodas, candy, fruit juice, and pastries — are hard for some people to digest. That can lead to diarrhea, bloating, and cramps.

SPICY FOODS:  Some people get indigestion or heartburn after eating them, especially when it’s a large meal.

Studies suggest the hot ingredient in chili peppers, called capsaicin, may be a culprit.

DAIRY FOODS:  If they trigger diarrhea, bloating, and gas, you may be “lactose intolerant.” It means you don’t have an enzyme that digests a sugar in milk and other forms of dairy.

Avoid those foods or try an over-the-counter drop or pill that has the missing enzyme.

PEPPERMINT : It can relax the muscle at the top of the stomach, which lets food move back into your esophagus. That can cause heartburn. Other culprits include chocolate or coffee.

Experts say you can lower the pressure that pushes the food back up if you lose extra weight, eat smaller portions, and don’t lie down after eating.

Also, learn what foods give you problems, so you can avoid them.

 

From Medicine.Net